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Types Of Carpets & History

carpets history types of

A carpet may be a textile floor cover typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made up of wool. Since the 20th century, synthetic fibers like polypropylene, nylon, or polyester are often used, as these fibers are more cost-effective than wool.

The pile typically consists of twisted tufts that are typically heat-treated create a consistent pattern of their structure. The term carpet is usually employed in a similar context to the term rug, but rugs generally are considered smaller than their occupied space and not attached to the floor.

Carpets are used for a range of purposes, including insulating an individual’s feet from a chilly tile or concrete floor, making an area softer as an area to sit down on the floor (e.g., when playing with children, family, or pets or as a prayer rug), reducing sound from walking and helping with sound pollution (particularly in apartment buildings), and adding decoration or color to an area.

Carpets are often made in any color by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have various kinds of patterns and motifs used to decorate the surface. Carpets are utilised in industrial and commercial establishments like retail stores and hotels, and privately owned homes.

Today, an enormous range of carpets and rugs are available at many prices and quality levels, starting from inexpensive, synthetic carpets mass-produced in factories and utilised in commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs that are utilised in the private homes of wealthy families.

Carpets are often produced on a loom similar to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by human hand (in oriental rugs), made with their pile injected into a backing material of the carpet (called tufting), flatwoven, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric, or embroidered.

Carpet flooring is usually made in widths of 12 feet (3.7 m) and 15 feet (4.6 m) within the United States & 4 m (13 ft) and 5 m (16 ft) in Europe. Since the 19th and 20th century eras, where necessary for wall-to-wall carpet, different widths of carpet are often seamed in conjunction with a seaming iron and seam tape (formerly it had been sewn together) and stuck to a floor over a cushioned underlay (pad) using nails, tack strips (known within the United Kingdom as gripper rods), adhesives, or more rarely as decorative metal stair rods.

Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs and mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the ground and covers a far larger area.

The word carpet comes from Old French carpite. One derivation of the word states that the French word came from the Old Italian carpita, from the verb “carpire” meaning to pluck. the web Etymology Dictionary states that the term “carpet” was first utilised in English within the late 13th-century era, with the meaning “coarse cloth,” and by the mid-14th century, “tablecloth.

Further reading

Flooring – Wikipedia

The web Etymology Dictionary states that the word comes “…from Old French carpite “heavy decorated cloth, carpet,” from Medieval Latin or Old Italian carpita “thick woolen cloth,” most likely from Latin carpere “to card, pluck,” most likely so-called because it had been made up of unraveled, shred[d]ed, “plucked” fabric.” The meaning of the term “carpet” shifted within the 15th century to refer to floor coverings.

The term “carpet” is usually used interchangeably with the word “rug.” Some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall. Another definition treats rugs as of a lower quality or smaller size, with carpets having finished ends.

A 3rd standard definition is that a carpet is permanently fixed in place while a rug is just laid out on the ground. Historically and over the past, the term “carpet” was also applied to table and wall coverings, as carpets weren’t commonly used on the floor in European interiors until the 15th century.

The term “rug” was first employed in English within the 1550s, meaning “coarse fabric.” The word is of “…Scandinavian origin; compare Norwegian dialectal rugga “coarse coverlet,” from Old Norse rogg “shaggy tuft,” from Proto-Germanic *rawwa-, perhaps associated with rag (n.) and rough (adj.).” The meaning of “rug” “…evolved to “coverlet, wrap” (the 1590s), then “mat for the floor” (1808)”.

rugs types of
rugs types of

Types of Carpet


The carpet is produced on a loom, just like woven fabric. The pile is often plush or Berber. The plush carpet may be a cut pile, and the Berber carpet may be a loop pile. There are new types of carpet flooring combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Typically many colored yarns are used. This process can manufacture intricate patterns from predetermined designs (although some limitations apply to specific weaving methods concerning the accuracy of patterns within the carpet). These carpets usually have the highest cost or are the most expensive, thanks to the manufacturing process’s relatively slow speed. These are very famous in Iran, Pakistan, India, and Arabia.

Needle felt

These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles, forming an exceptionally durable carpet. These carpets are typically found in commercial settings like hotels and restaurants where there’s frequent traffic.


On a knotted pile carpet or flooring (formally, a “supplementary weft cut-loop pile” carpet), the structural weft threads alternate with an enhancing weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. This supplementary or enhancing weft is attached to the warp by one of the three-knot types, like shag carpet, popular within the 1970s, to make the carpet’s pile or nap. Knotting by human-hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Kashmir carpets also are hand-knotted. Pile carpets, like flat carpets, are often woven on a loom. Both vertical and horizontal looms are utilised in the assembly of European and oriental carpets. The warp threads are established on the frame of the loom before weaving begins. A variety of weavers and workers will work together on the same carpet. A row of knots is completed and cut. The knots are secured in place with (usually 1 to 4) rows of weft. The warp in woven carpet & flooring is typically cotton, and also, the weft is jute.

There are several kinds of knotting, but the two main types of knot are symmetrical (also called Turkish or Ghiordes) and asymmetrical (Persian or Senna). New centres of knotted carpet production are Lahore and Peshawar (Pakistan), Kashmir (India), Mirzapur and Bhadohi (India),[6]Tabriz (Iran), Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Northern Africa, Nepal, Spain, Turkmenistan, and Tibet. The importance of carpets within Turkmenistan’s culture is such that the Turkmenistan Flag features a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs utilised in producing rugs). Kashmir is known for hand-knotted carpets of silk or wool.


These are carpets, and rugs have their pile injected into a backing material, which is then bonded to a secondary backing made from a woven hessian weave or a human-made alternative to produce stability. The pile is usually sheared to attain different textures. This is typically the most common method of making domestic carpets for carpeting or flooring purposes.


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